Why in News?
Maharashtra Governor has recently issued a notification modifying the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.
- The notification has been issued by the Governor using his powers under sub paragraph (1) of paragraph 5 of the Schedule V of the Constitution.
What are the modifications?
The changes will enable tribals and other traditional forest dwelling families to build houses in the neighbourhood forest areas.
- The decision is likely to provide a major relief to Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest-dwelling families residing in the scheduled areas of the State.
- The move aims to prevent the migration of forest-dwelling families outside their native villages and provide them housing areas by extending the village site into forest land in their neighbourhood.
What is 5th schedule?
The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the administration and control of Scheduled Areas as well as of Scheduled Tribes residing in any State other than the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Special Provisions for Fifth Schedule Areas:
- The Governorof each State having Scheduled Areas (SA) shall annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the administration of Scheduled Areas in that State.
- The Union Government shall have executive powers to give directions to the States as to the administration of the Scheduled Areas.
- Para 4 of the Fifth Schedule provides for establishment of a Tribes Advisory Council (TAC)in any State having Scheduled Areas.
- Composition: Consisting of not more than twenty members of whom, three-fourths shall be the representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State. If the number of representatives of the STs in the Legislative Assembly of the State is less than the number of seats in the TAC to be filled by such representatives, the remaining seats shall be filled by other members of those Tribes.
- Functions: The TAC shall advise on such matters pertaining to the welfare and the advancement of the STs in the State as may be referred to them by the Governor.
The Governor may make rules prescribing or regulating:
- The number of members of the Council, the mode of their appointment and the appointment of the Chairman of the Council and of the officers and servants thereof, the conduct of its meetings and its procedure in general.
- The Governor may, by public notification, direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall or shall not apply to a SA or any part thereof in the State, subject to such exceptions and modifications, as specified.
- The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in the State which is for the time being a SA.
- Such regulations may prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled tribes in such area; regulate the allotment of land to members of the STs in such area.
- In making such regulations, the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of Legislature of the State or any existing law after obtaining assent of the President.
- The Act passed in 2006 grants legal recognitionto the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities.
There are two stages to be eligible under this Act.
Everyone has to satisfy two conditions:
- primarily residing in forests or forest lands;
- depends on forests and forest land for a livelihood;
One has to prove that-
- the above conditions have been true for 75 years,in which case one is an Other Traditional Forest Dweller OR
- One is a member of a Scheduled Tribe and that he/she is residing in the area where they are scheduled.
- In the latter case he/she is a Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribe.
- The law recognizes three types of rights:
No one gets rights to any land that they have not been cultivating prior to December 13, 2005.
Ownership to land that is being farmed by tribal or forest dwellers is subject to a maximum of 4 hectares.
Ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family, meaning that no new lands are granted.
Those who have a patta or a government lease, but whose land has been illegally taken by the Forest Department or whose land is the subject of a dispute between Forest and Revenue Departments, can claim those lands.
The land cannot be sold or transferred to anyone except by inheritance.
Why in News?
The Palghar administration has asked authorities to remain alert against a possible spread of the Congo fever in the Maharashtra district.
- Fever, muscle ache, dizziness, neck pain, backache, headache, sore eyes and photophobia (sensitivity to light).
- There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and sore throat early on, followed by sharp mood swings, confusion, depression and liver enlargement.
Background: Congo fever was first discovered in Crimea in 1944 and was named Crimean hemorrhagic fever.
Later in 1969, scientists discovered that the pathogen responsible for causing Crimean hemorrhagic fever and the one that caused illness in Congo in 1956 was the same.
Hence, the name changed to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF):
Cause: The CCHF is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family.
- The virus is transmitted through bite of Hyalomma tick,an external parasite, living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds etc.
- It can also be contracted through contact with viraemic animal tissues(animal tissue where the virus has entered the bloodstream) during and immediately post-slaughter of animals.
Human-to-human transmission: It can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons.
Hospital-acquired infections can also occur due to improper sterilisation of medical equipment, reuse of needles and contamination of medical supplies.
Fatality: CCHF outbreaks constitute a threat to public health services as the virus can lead to epidemics, with a high case fatality ratio (10-40%).
Case fatality rate (CFR) is a measure of the severity of a disease and is defined as the proportion of cases of a specified disease or condition which are fatal within a specified time.
- CCHF is endemic in all of Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and in Asia.
- General supportive care with treatment of symptoms is the main approach to managing CCHF in people.
- The antiviral drug ribavirin has been used to treat CCHF infection with apparent benefit.
- There are no vaccines widely available for human or animal use.
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
Global Counter Terrorism Council:
It is a registered non-profit International Think Tank initiated by public spirited individuals to awaken further issues of national interest and global conscience about terrorism as a threat to humanity, human security etc.
Members belong to different faculties & background like senior bureaucrats, academicians, officers from the armed forces & paramilitary services, distinguished diplomats, leading researchers, media analysts, parliamentarians, professionals, corporate heads, human rights groups.
They provide support and regularly contribute with the aim to deliberate on the root causes of Global Terrorism and to present effective solutions to the problems faced by society and the government.
Why in News?
International Energy Security Conference 2020 was recently organised by Global Counter-Terrorism Council (GCTC).