Why in News?
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has released the annual Crime in India 2019 report.
- Increase in crimes against members of the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and the Scheduled Tribes (STs):There is an increase of over 7% and 26% in 2019 compared with the 2018 figures.
- Increase of 1.6% in the registrationof cases over 2018.
- Uttar Pradesh recorded the highest numberof crimes against the SCs in 2019, followed by Rajasthan and Bihar.
- Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of cases against STs,followed by Rajasthan, and Odisha.
- In the number of cases of rape of women belonging to the SCs,Rajasthan topped the list followed by Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of cases against the STs, followed by Rajasthan and Odisha.
- The highest number of incidents of rape of tribal womenwas registered in Madhya Pradesh.
Overall crimes against women:
A total of 4,05,861 cases of crime against women were registered in 2019 compared to 3,78,236 cases in 2018, showing an increase of 7.3%.
Why survey is criticized?
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), a police reforms advocacy group, said few cases were being registered for specific discriminatory action against SCs and STs.
- The low percentage of cases registered indicates that very few cases alleging specific discriminatory actions on the basis of caste and tribal identity that are defined as atrocities under Section 3 of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989 are being registered on their own.
- Such actions are registered mainly when accompanied by any of the IPC offences.
- Also, there is no data on total complaints received on crimes against the Scheduled Castes.
Organic Farming :
Why in News? Organic farming in India is still in nascent stage, of the 140 million hectares under net sown area under agriculture in India, organic farming constitutes only 2.7 million hectares.
- This is just 2% of the net sown area under cultivation.
- Madhya Pradesh tops the list in terms of organic coverage area with about 27% of the total area under organic cultivation.
- The top 3 states in organic cultivation are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, that combinedly constitute 50% of the area under cultivation.
- Not all states in India have a policy on organic cultivation. Only 20 states so far had a policy to implement organic farming in their state.
- Apart from the states like like Andhra Pradesh, Himachal, Mizoram, etc that have 100% organic ambition, there are only a select few that have set specific measurable targets.
- Sikkim is the only state to become fully organic while the top 3 states under organic cultivation have less than 5% of its net sown area under organic farming.
- Only 12 states have their own organic certification agencies certified by Agricultural and Processed food products export development authority (APEDA).
ü Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority is an apex body under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, responsible for the export promotion of agricultural products.
ü It was founded in 1986
- National Programme for Organic Production:It involves certification of organic products through third party certification agencies, it is implemented by APEDA.
- 2. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana:This scheme is implemented under Soil Health Management scheme of Project National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture.
- Under this scheme organic farming is promoted through adoption of organic village by cluster approach and PGS (Participatory Guarantee Certification) scheme.
- 4. PGS : It is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture for certifying organic products.
- Of the total land under organic cultivaion, 70% of the area is under the National Programme for Organic Production.
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
Scientists from the Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) in Pune have recently found two new species of pipeworts in Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- The two new species of a plant group known for their varied medicinal properties have been discovered in the Western Ghats which reportedly is one of the thirty-five hot-spots of biological diversity in the world.
- The plant group is known as pipeworts (Eriocaulon), which completes their life cycle within a small period during monsoon, exhibits great diversity in the Western Ghats, having around 111 species in India.